The Stop TB Department of the World Health Organization gratefully acknowledges the members of the Guidelines Group (listed in Annex 6), including Jeremiah Muhwa Chakaya, the Chairperson. Richard Menzies (McGill University, Montreal, Canada), Karen Steingart and Phillip Hopewell (University of California, San Francisco, USA) and Andrew Nunn and Patrick Phillips (British Medical Research Council) led the teams that compiled, synthesized and evaluated the evidence underlying each recommendation. Suzanne Hill and Holger Schünemann facilitated the meeting of the Guidelines Group. Useful feedback was obtained from the External Review Group (also listed in Annex 6). Additional feedback and support were provided by the Guidelines Review Committee (Chair, Suzanne Hill; Secretariat, Faith McLellan). Publication of the guidelines was supported in part by a financial contribution from the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria. The document was prepared by Sarah Royce and Malgorzata Grzemska. Dorris Ortega provided secretarial support.
This document was prepared for the World Health Organization (WHO) Global Malaria Programme by Amy Barrette and Pascal Ringwald and was reviewed by Rick Fairhurst (National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases) Arjen Dondorp (Mahidol–Oxford Tropical Medicine Research Unit); Patrick ; Kachur, John MacArthur, Laurence Slutsker (Malaria Branch, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention); Christopher Plowe (University of Maryland); Christopher Dye, Kamini Mendis, Robert Newman, Peter Olumese, Jackson Sillah and Mariam Warsame (WHO). The Global Malaria Programme wishes to thank the ministries of health, nongovernmental organizations, pharmaceutical companies, public private partnerships, research institutes, subregional networks and WHO regional offices that kindly shared their data. Financial support for the preparation of this document and the WHO global database on antimalarial drug efficacy was provided by the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation and the United States Agency for International Development
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The ECG in Practice is a clinically-orientated book, showing how the electrocardiogram can help in the diagnosis and treatment of patients with symptoms suggesting cardiovascular disease. The underlying philosophy of this Sixth Edition remains that the ECG has to be interpreted in the light of the patient’s history and physical examination, thus the book is organised in chapters according to a patient’s symptoms.
This book provides a lucid summary of modern multislice CT imaging of the abdomen, with a focus on the essential imaging findings. After a concise technical introduction, the most important abdominal diseases are described and illustrated with high-quality images. Sections are devoted to the liver and biliary system, the pancreas and spleen, the kidneys and urogenital system, and the bowel and peritoneal cavity. Throughout, key differential diagnostic features are highlighted. The editorial team is composed of internationally renowned radiologists from Europe and the United States, and all chapters have been written by recognized experts in the topic under consideration. Multislice CT of the Abdomen will serve as an excellent reference for radiologists participating in further professional training and will prove an ideal source of information for all who wish to deepen their personal knowledge of the subject.
Study from 1348 surgery infective samples to estimate to E. coli’s rate and against of those to the antibiotics by studying experiment. Result: • All the samples have E. coli. The common rate in the samples is 23%; The E. coli’s rate in the fluid gall is the highest (28,1%) and the lowest is E. coli’s rate in the pleural fluid (2,6%); The E. coli has been sensitived with antibiotic, make a quite rate, almost of: Netilmycin (98,6%), amikacin (93,4%), cefotaxim (76,9%), gentamycin (70%), and almost of against of: Ampicilin (79,3%), co-trimoxazol (66,2%), tetracycline (56,2%), cloramphenicol (61,4%).
The aim of study was to evaluate the pre-operative psychology and the knowledge of surgical patients on surgery and anesthesia; and to find out patient’s discomforts in the recovery time. Methods: A descriptive and observational study was conducted on the 228 patients, one day before and immedieatly after the surgery. Results: 140 patients were included in the study. Their pre-operative psychologies were: The afraid of pain (46.4%), recurrence(35.7%), concern of failure (34.8%), to which female was risk factor, OR = 2.6; 2.5; 4.8 respectively. 63.6% patient had no knowledge about their own operations and 58.6% patients had no idea on anesthetic methods. During the recovery time, the most frequent discomforts were pain (65.8%), thirst (19.3%), hot (15.3%). Female, the afraid of pain, concern of failure were risk factors to the post-operative pain with OR= 11.2; 2.5; 2.6 respectively. The most desire was decreasing the pain (56.8%). Conclusion: The most frequent pre-operative psychology of patient was afraid of pain (46.4%). 63.6% patient had no knowledge about their operation, 58.6% patients had not known about anesthesia. In the recovery time the pain was most regular discomfort. Femal, pre-operative the afraid of pain, concern of failue were risk factors in the post-operative pain.
"This study was performed in order to test the possibilities of calculating the burden of disease in Bavi district in Vietnam, using data collected from Bavi epidemiological field laboratory with the help of Disability Adjusted Life Years (DALY). The calculated burden of diseases consisted of the two components YLLs (Years of Life Lost) and YLDs (Years Lived with Disabilities). The data used for YLLs include 177 mortality cases, which were collected during the year of 1999. YLDs burden was calculated based on 46897 morbidity cases collected during six months of 1999. The total population covered by the field laboratory was 49000 persons. The data used in the study was not designed specially for calculation of DAL Ys. This study was designed to use data that were ""readily available"", to assess the applicability of the method in the context of a developing country like Vietnam. By using computer software MS Excel 97, MS FoxPro for Windows 2.6 and Epiinfo 6.04b running on the above-mentioned data, using disability weightings and durations recommended by WHO, the burden of diseases was calculated. The leading diagnoses for YLLs were infant mortality (20.6%), drowning (14.8%), cancer (13.4%), accidents 8.1%, and kidney diseases (6.1 %). Leading causes in the YLDs component were heart diseases (54.3%), hypertension (12.8%) and injuries (5.5%). The study was successful in its objective to quantify burden of disease by using the readily available data. The two parts, YLLs and YLDs could however not be combined to a common DALY measure, as the diagnostic accuracy did not allow that. "
The primary aim of this report is to share survey and surveillance data on drug resistance in tuberculosis (TB). The data presented here are supplied largely by the programme managers who have led the work on surveys, but also by heads of reference laboratories and by principal investigators who may have been hired to assist the national TB programmes with the study. We thank all of them, and their staff, for their contributions. The World Health Organization/International Union Against Tuberculosis and Lung Disease (WHO/UNION) Global Project on Anti-Tuberculosis Drug Resistance Surveillance is carried out with the financial backing of United States Agency for International Development (USAID) and Eli Lilly and Company as part of the Lilly multidrug resistant (MDR)-TB Partnership. Drug resistance surveys were supported financially by the Dutch Government, the Global Fund, Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA), Kreditanstalt für Wiederaufbau (KfW Entwicklungsbank), national TB programmes and USAID). The Supranational Reference Laboratory Network provided the external quality assurance, as well as technical support to many of the countries reporting. Technical support for surveys was provided by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), JICA, the Royal Netherlands Tuberculosis Association (KNCV), and WHO. Data for the WHO European Region were collected and validated jointly with EuroTB (Paris) — a European TB surveillance network funded by the European Commission.