To persons living with HIV/AIDS past, present, and future who provide the knowledge, to researchers who utilize the knowledge, to health care workers who apply the knowledge, and to public officials who do their best to promote the health of their citizens with the knowledge of the biology, pathophysiology, treatment, and prevention of HIV/AIDS.
This handbook was designed for the large number of residents from a variety of disciplines that rotate through pediatrics during their first year of training. It may also be helpful for clinical clerks during their time on the pediatric wards, as well as for pediatric residents and elective students.
Hopefully this demystifies some of the ‘pediatric specific’ logistics, and gives a few practical suggestions for drug dosages and fluid requirements. This is intended only to act as a guideline for general pediatrics use, and some drugs, doses, indications and monitoring requirements may differ in individual situations. We would like to thank Mark Duffett (PICU pharmacist) for compiling and editing the pediatric formulary section and Dr. Moyez Ladhani for editing and supporting the production of this handbook. We would very much appreciate any feedback, suggestions or contributions emailed to email@example.com
Malaria is an important cause of death and illness in children and adults, especially in
tropical countries. Malaria control requires an integrate approach, including prevention
(primarily vector control) and prompt treatment with effective antimalarials. Since the
publication of the first edition of the guidelines in 2006, most of the countries where
P. falciparum is endemic have progressively updated treatment policies from the failing
chloroquine (CQ) and sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) to the recommended artemisininbased
combination therapies (ACTs); this is the best current treatment for uncomplicated
falciparum malaria. Unfortunately, the implementation of these policies has lagged behind
due to various factors such as high costs.
The recommendations given in these guidelines aim to provide simple and straightforward
treatment recommendations based on sound evidence that can be applied even in
severely resource-constrained settings. To achieve this goal, all relevant factors are taken
into account with adjustments for different areas where levels of drug resistance and
background immunity vary. These factors include the in vitro antimalarial susceptibility
and the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties of the different antimalarial
medicines. Cost is a factor that should be taken into consideration in antimalarial
treatment policy and practices. However, as there are increasing international subsidies
for antimalarials, efficacy and safety have taken precedence over costs when making the
recommendations. The number of antimalarial drug trials published has continued to
increase over the years, with the result that these guidelines have a firmer evidence base
than previous treatment recommendations. Inevitably, there are still information gaps,
so they will remain under regular review with updates every two years and/or on an ad
hoc basis as new evidence becomes available. The malaria treatment recommendations
in the main document are brief; for those who may wish to study the evidence base in
more detail, a series of annexes with linkages to the appropriate sections of the main
document is provided.
The Stop TB Department of the World Health Organization gratefully acknowledges the members of the Guidelines Group (listed in Annex 6), including Jeremiah Muhwa Chakaya, the Chairperson. Richard Menzies (McGill University, Montreal, Canada), Karen Steingart and Phillip Hopewell (University of California, San Francisco, USA) and Andrew Nunn and Patrick Phillips (British Medical Research Council) led the teams that compiled, synthesized and evaluated the evidence underlying each recommendation. Suzanne Hill and Holger Schünemann facilitated the meeting of the Guidelines Group. Useful feedback was obtained from the External Review Group (also listed in Annex 6). Additional feedback and support were provided by the Guidelines Review Committee (Chair, Suzanne Hill; Secretariat, Faith McLellan). Publication of the guidelines was supported in part by a financial contribution from the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria. The document was prepared by Sarah Royce and Malgorzata Grzemska. Dorris Ortega provided secretarial support.